What is white-collar crime exactly?
White-collar crime is a broad term that covers a variety of nonviolent crimes that are alleged to involve cheating in one form or another. Examples of white-collar crime include allegations of fraud in its various forms, bribery, insider trading, environmental crime, embezzlement, forgery, tax evasion, kickbacks, and money laundering. According to the FBI, white-collar crimes total more than $300 billion annually.
Where does the term "white-collar crime" come from?
Edwin H. Sutherland, a noted sociologist, first coined the term "white-collar crime" in 1939 in a speech he gave before the American Sociological Association. Sutherland later defined white-collar crime as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation."
What's the difference between white-collar crime and blue-collar crime?
The most salient difference between white-collar and blue-collar crime is the means by which offenses are carried out. Blue-collar crimes most often involve physical force; white collar crimes, on the other hand, are inherently technical in nature, often involving the manipulation of information either on paper or electronically.
What agencies investigate white-collar crime?
White-collar offenses often fall under federal jurisdiction. If personnel from one or more of the following federal agencies have questioned you, you may be the target of a white-collar crime investigation:
- Federal Bureau of Investigation
- Securities and Exchange Commission
- Internal Revenue Service
- United States Treasury
- United States Postal Service
- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service
How can I tell if I'm under investigation for a white-collar crime?
Unlike blue-collar crimes, in which the subject is usually unaware of the investigation, investigations of white-collar offenses have a well-defined target or pre-indictment phase. A prosecutor may be gathering evidence to present to a grand jury if one or more of the following have happened to you:
- You are contacted by a representative of any of the federal agencies listed above.
- You are contacted by a representative of an analogous state agency.
- You receive a grand jury subpoena to produce business records.
- You are presented with a search warrant to seize business documents.
- You receive a target or subject letter informing you that you're under investigation.
What's a target letter?
A target letter is a letter that a federal prosecutor at a United States Attorney's office sends to inform someone that he or she is the target of a federal investigation. Most often, the letter informs the recipient of the nature of the charges being investigated (e.g. insider trading, wire fraud, etc.).
Target letters are used during the target or pre-indictment phase of a white-collar crime investigation. As might be expected, a target letter advises the recipient of his or her rights, in particular the right to counsel and the right not to testify. If you receive a target letter, you are most likely going to be indicted.
What does a target letter look like?
The following is a sample target letter taken from the United States Attorney's Manual:
This letter is supplied to a witness scheduled to appear before the federal Grand Jury in order to provide helpful background information about the Grand Jury. The Grand Jury consists of from sixteen to twenty-three persons from the District of ___. It is their responsibility to inquire into federal crimes which may have been committed in this District. As a Grand Jury witness you will be asked to testify and answer questions, and to produce records and documents. Only the members of the Grand Jury, attorneys for the United States and a stenographer are permitted in the Grand Jury room while you testify. We advise you that the Grand Jury is conducting an investigation of possible violations of federal criminal laws involving, but not necessarily limited to *. You are advised that the destruction or alteration of any document required to be produced before the grand jury constitutes serious violation of federal law, including but not limited to Obstruction of Justice. You are advised that you are a target of the Grand Jury's investigation. You may refuse to answer any question if a truthful answer to the question would tend to incriminate you. Anything that you do or say may be used against you in a subsequent legal proceeding. If you have retained counsel, who represents you personally, the Grand Jury will permit you a reasonable opportunity to step outside the Grand Jury room and confer with counsel if you desire. Cordially,
What should I do if I receive a target letter?
If you have received a target letter, the first thing you should do is retain the services of a law firm that specializes in white-collar defense. The complex nature of white-collar defense is such that not only do you need white-collar defense expertise, you need a team capable of maintaining the necessary investigatory and support efforts.
A timely response on your part is vital. The sooner you retain a competent white-collar defense team during the pre-indictment phase, the easier it will be for that team to point out and deal with a misunderstanding on the prosecutor's part. If your case does not involve a misunderstanding, your white-collar defense team will be able to work out the most favorable deal before, rather than after, an indictment is handed down.
What should I do if I am contacted by investigators?
If you are contacted by federal or state investigators, it is very important that you do not give statements or cooperate in any way until you have spoken with an attorney skilled in white-collar defense. The investigators are not your friends. Talking to them or otherwise helping them will only hurt you. Investigators have only one mission: to build a case against you.
A skilled white-collar defense team might be able to get the investigators to either close the investigation or change its focus.
What could happen to me if I'm convicted of a white-collar crime?
The penalties for white-collar crimes vary according to the nature and degree of the offense; however, punishment for a white-collar offense could typically include one or more of the following:
- Jail time (in either federal or state prison)
- Restitution (the return of money or property to the victim)
- Forfeiture (the giving up of money or property)
- Supervised release
- Home detention
What are some of the possible defenses to a white-collar crime?
If you are facing a worst-case scenario and have to go to trial, a skilled white-collar criminal defense team should examine a variety of defenses. Duress is a possible defense. According to Black's Law Dictionary, duress is "a threat of harm made to compel a person to do something against his or her will or judgment."
There are also defenses and defensive strategies specific to white-collar crime. Here are a couple of examples:
- Entrapment is a common defense in white-collar crime cases in which law enforcement officials have coerced a defendant into committing a criminal act that he or she otherwise would not have committed.
- Absence of intent is yet another common defense in white-collar prosecutions. Because intent is an inherent part of most white-collar crimes, if your attorney can convince the prosecutors or a judge that you lacked the intent to commit a crime, a favorable outcome may be realized.
What should I look for in a white-collar defense attorney?
Competence. Because most white-collar crimes fall under federal jurisdiction, you need a specialist who understands federal criminal law. Furthermore, not only do you need attorneys who understand the white-collar offense at issue, white-collar specialists who are very familiar with the federal rules of criminal procedure, civil procedure, and evidence.
Besides being familiar with federal rules, your white-collar defense team has to be familiar with government strategy in a white-collar case. In recent years, the government has made increasing use of civil enforcement tools (e.g. asset forfeiture, actions under the False Claims Act, and regulatory investigations). You need a team of white-collar defense specialists who can anticipate the government's moves.
If I am interviewed as part of an internal company investigation, may I have my lawyer present?
Only rarely. Remember that the company will always put its interests before yours. The company's own attorneys invariably conduct such interviews. They will give you numerous reasons why you don't need your own counsel present, not the least of which is that the interview is privileged. They'll also intimate that you don't really have anything to worry about. However, if your company experiences even the slightest pressure from a federal prosecutor, they will often waive that privilege and hand over the results of their internal investigation.
Of course, you don't have to participate in the interview, but refusal may result in your termination. In such a situation, you are most definitely between a rock and a hard place. You need the experienced counsel of a team of white-collar defense specialists to help you make the decision that is best for you.
How can I help my white-collar defense team help me?
If you are under investigation for or have been charged with a white-collar offense, first realize that you are in serious trouble and that you need help. Secondly, realize that you have to help yourself, and that one of the ways you can help yourself is to work as a team player with your white-collar specialists.
Be utterly honest with your white-collar defense lawyers. To be able to help you in the most effective manner, your team has to know the whole story.
Also, you will have to work to help yourself. You will have assignments, tasks, and chores to carry out, as will your attorneys. You must function as part of a team.
What does a healthy attorney/client relationship look like?
Whether you opt for a solo practitioner or a team, you should first look for competence in the area of white-collar defense. You must also determine that your prospective white-collar defense is loyal, able to maintain confidentiality, and willing to represent you vigorously.
You must also find someone who is willing to communicate with you in a timely and effective manner. And you must be willing to communicate with your white-collar defense counsel in precisely the same way. To be able to represent you in the most effective manner, your white-collar defense counsel has to know everything.
For your part, you must be careful to be discreet so as not to endanger the privilege of confidentiality. If you share the details of confidential communications between you and your counsel, you may seriously damage your case.
Do I have the option of firing my white-collar defense counsel?
Certainly. You can fire a lawyer anytime you are dissatisfied with his or her services. You even have the option of firing your attorney once the case has been filed in court. However, there are some very important things you should consider:
- Your attorney will be entitled to payment up to the time of dismissal.
- If the case has already been filed, you may need the court's permission to let the lawyer withdraw.
- If the case is very close to trial, the court may be very reluctant to allow your attorney to withdraw from the case, especially if the dismissal will delay the proceedings.
- In some states, the attorney may keep your file until you have paid your bill.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Be sure to shop around carefully and find the white-collar defense team that is right for you.
What is Guidelines analysis?
Guidelines analysis is a tool on which a competent white-collar defense attorney bases his or her strategic decisions in a criminal case. The term refers to Federal Sentencing Guidelines, a manual to which federal judges must refer when calculating sentencing ranges.
A federal judge is not bound by the Guidelines, however. The Guidelines became advisory following a 2005 U.S. Supreme Court case called U.S. v Booker. However, every competent attorney practicing in the area of white-collar crime will engage in a form of backwards planning. He or she will determine both the worst-case and best-case scenario under the Guidelines.
What should I do if I'm arrested on some sort of white-collar charge?
If you find yourself being arrested on a white-collar crime charge, there are some things you should avoid doing:
- Don't run. If you attempt to flee, you run the risk of injury to yourself or others. You also run the risk of a very unpleasant forceful arrest. Law enforcement officials who have been forced to participate in a chase are more likely to be agitated and consequently draw their weapons.
- Don't explain. You can only hurt yourself by talking. Simply invoke your right to remain silent by stating, "I'm not going to say anything until I speak to my attorney."
- Don't get overconfident. This advice includes not getting chatty or sassy. By no means interfere with the law enforcement personnel effecting the arrest. They're just doing their job. You do yours by staying silent.
- Don't give permission to search your person, your personal effects, your car, or your house or apartment. If ordered to turn over your bag or your keys, state the following in a firm but polite manner: "You do NOT have my permission to search." Then hand over the item. If there are witnesses nearby who overhear your statement, it may be possible for your attorney later to exclude from evidence what is found.
- Don't look around nervously at the places you don't want them to search. Do not tip them off by looking at precisely where you don't want them to search. Also avoid gasping or sighing. Simply stare at the ground or ceiling. Refrain from answering questions like "What is this?" or "Who does this belong to?"
- Don't resist arrest. Don't push back or knock their hands away.
- Don't try to be nice. Trying to convince them of your innocence is useless. What you say can and will be used against you.
- Don't believe what they tell you. They can lie to you in a number of ways to get you to talk. In fact, they will exert many different forms of psychological pressure on you. Just remain silent and wait to speak with your lawyer.
- Don't invite them inside your home. And don't step outside either. To enter your home, they must have a warrant. Don't make anything easy for them. Simply say "I'll just stay right here" or "May I please see your warrant?" If they don't have a warrant and go away, contact your attorney immediately.
- Don't agree to secure your car or go into your home. They can follow you and conduct a warrantless search.
What is an "ambush interview," and what should I do if I find myself facing one?
An "ambush interview" is a technique federal agents use to conduct an interrogation without going to the trouble of obtaining a warrant or arresting you.
Here is a typical scenario: Two FBI agents show up at your office unannounced. They state that they need some information and would appreciate it if you could help them out. Not wishing to appear uncooperative, you agree. The meeting starts out friendly and low-key. They begin by asking seemingly harmless questions about your company. One agent does the talking; the other takes notes and says nothing.
However, as the meeting progresses, their tone changes, and the questions start to focus on particulars. You start to realize that this meeting isn't friendly at all. You want to end the meeting, but you don't want this to be seen somehow as an admission of guilt. What do you do?
You terminate the meeting immediately and call your attorney. You are under no legal obligation at this point to answer their questions. To be forced to answer questions, you must be served with a grand jury subpoena, and even then, you are obliged to answer questions only before the grand jury.
Remember, like bad pennies, the agents will only show up again. Their next appearance may not be at your office, but at your home or anywhere they can figure to gain the element of surprise. Remember, that your rights remain the same, regardless of the time and place of the ambush.
Consider carefully the attorney you contact. Most in-house counsel are not criminal lawyers; even fewer are skilled white-collar defense attorneys. A skilled, experienced white-collar criminal defense team can assist you in a variety of ways. They can help you decide whether to cooperate with the agents. Having counsel present will suppress the agents' inclination to question you aggressively. Most importantly, having good white-collar defense counsel will enable you to formulate a strategy and prevent you from making costly mistakes.
What should I do if indicted on a white-collar charge?
If you are indicted on charges of having committed a white-collar crime, one of the biggest mistakes you can make is to start discussing your case with people other than your white collar defense team and their staff. If someone asks about your case, simply say that you have legal representation and are not at liberty to discuss the matter.
If you do not yet have competent white-collar representation and are questioned, just say that you're in the process of finding an attorney and cannot discuss the matter.
Remember that remaining silent is not the same as stating that you are under representation. This difference becomes especially important when you talk to law enforcement authorities. If you have not been arrested, or are not otherwise in the custody of law enforcement, your silence can be seen as an admission of guilt. However, if you have been arrested, or are in custody, your silence cannot be used against you. The best policy in all circumstances is just to say that you have legal counsel (or are seeking it) and cannot discuss the matter.
Among the most terrible mistakes that any white-collar crime suspect can make is to destroy what the authorities could consider evidence or ask others to somehow cover the truth. You can be completely innocent, but you will convince the prosecutor of your guilt if you tamper with documents or tell others to obfuscate. When such behavior is revealed in court, the effects can be catastrophic.
For a consultation with Lorandos Joshi, call 734-545-2919 or send the firm an e-mail.